Re State aid, what is a “linked” enterprise?

Linked enterprises form a group by controlling the majority of voting rights of an enterprise, either directly or indirectly; or being able to exercise dominant influence over an enterprise.

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Enterprises are linked when one enterprise holds a majority of the shareholders’ or members’ voting rights in another enterprise; or can appoint or remove a majority of the other enterprise’s administrative, management or supervisory body; or there is a contract between each enterprise enabling one to exercise a dominant influence over the other; or one enterprise can exercise sole control over a majority of shareholders’ or members’ voting rights in another enterprise.

A typical example is a wholly owned subsidiary.

An enterprise is indirectly linked to a business if it is directly linked to an enterprise that is linked directly to the business.